Despite its ancient geological origin, Sardinia (Italian: Sardegna) has preserved its own freshness, capturing the gaze and admiration of many who, in the flow of centuries, irresistibly attracted by the geographical position, the heart of the western Mediterranean, have made it the object of the most different empires. Sardinia is surrounded (clockwise from north) by the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, and the Balearic Islands.
Every place in Sardinia encloses a vibrant microcosm of history, traditions and specific details. From the towns, capitals of the eight Sardinian provinces, to the villages, small in size and population but with plenty of charm and fascination on offer. Countless differences exist between this town and that town, one village and another. Sant'Antioco and San Pietro in the Southwestern coast of Sardinia, are lovely unspoiled islands. Santa Teresa di Gallura is a charming coast resort without the cold ostentation of the Costa Smeralda. Alghero has a fascinating Catalan heritage and a captivating old quarter. The Phoenicians probably foundedthe historic town of Cagliari way back in the 8th century BC. The town has always been Sardinia’s main port. The village of Silanus lies at an altitude of 500 metres in a territory that comprises the central part of the Marghine range which to the west. Bosa is a picturesque village with pink-and-golden Medieval buildings flanking the river.
Around 1000 B.C. the Phoenicians began to land on the shores of Sardinia with increasing frequency. Setting sail from Lebanon, on their trade routes as far afield as Britain they needed safe anchorages for the night or to weather a storm. In 509 B.C. the Carthaginians conquered the island. In 238 B.C. the Carthaginians, defeated by the Romans in the first Punic War, surrendered Sardinia, which became a province of Rome. The Romans enlarged and embellished the coastal cities. Raids and attacks by the Berbers on the Sardinian shores began in 710 and grew ever more ruinous with time. Their inhabitants abandoned the coastal towns and cities. In the 13th Century the Aragonese James II, king of Aragon took control of Sardinia and Corsica
In 1323 James II of Aragon formed an alliance with the kings of Arborea and occupied the Pisan territories of Cagliari and Gallura along with the city of Sassari. In 1354 the Aragonese seized Alghero and reshaped it into an entirely Catalan city, which still today displays its Iberian origins. In 1479, as a result of the personal union of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabel of Castile, the Crown of Spain was born. The "kingdom of Sardinia" became Spanish, with the state symbol of the Four Moors. Following the failure of the military ventures against Tunis (1535) and Algiers (1541), Charles V of Spain fortified the Sardinian shores with a system of coastal lookout towers. The kingdom of Sardinia remained Spanish for approximately 400 years, from 1323 to 1720, assimilating a number of Spanish traditions, customs, and linguistic expressions. In 1861 Sardinia joined the newly founded Kingdom of Italy. The Sardinian economy is today focused on tourism.